女生在校学习成绩更好

2019-12-04 06:07栏目:出国教育
TAG:

  to reverse a trend转换局面生机勃勃种趋向

Gender, education and work: The weaker sex

Boys are being outclassed by girls at both school and university, and the gap is widening

在高四之日大学阶段,男孩正被女孩当先,且间隔正日渐拉大。

“IT’S all to do with their brains and bodies and chemicals,” says Sir Anthony Seldon, the master of Wellington College, a**posh**699net必赢,English**boarding school**. “There’s a**mentality**that it’s not cool for them to perform, that it’s not cool to be smart,” suggests Ivan Yip, principal of the Bronx Leadership Academy in New York. One school charges £25,000 ($38,000) a year and has a**scuba-diving**club; the other serves subsidised lunches to most of its pupils, a quarter of whom have**special needs**. Yet both**are grappling with**the same problem: teenage boys are being left behind by girls.

生机勃勃所高级乌Crane语寄宿学园的校长AnthonySeldon称“那点一滴决定于他们的大脑、身体和激素”。LondonBronx Leadership Academy市长IvanYip称“他们遍布感到努力是不酷的,聪明是不酷的”。前面一个收取费用3.8万欧元一年并留存潜水俱乐部;而另八个为其超过二分之后生可畏上学的小孩子提供午饭补贴,53%的学生有特别传授必要。然则,它们都一模二样致力于化解雷同难点:青年男孩远远滞后于女孩。

It is a problem that would have been unimaginable a few decades ago. Until the 1960s boys spent longer and went further in school than girls, and were more likely to graduate from university. Now, across the rich world and in a growing number of poor countries, the balance has**tilted**the other way. Policymakers who once fretted about girls’ lack of confidence in science now spend their time dangling copies of “Harry Potter” before surly boys. Sweden has commissioned research into its “boy crisis”. Australia has devised a reading programme called “Boys, Blokes, Books & Bytes”. In just a couple of generations, one gender gap has closed, only for another to open up.

那是贰个十数年前不能够想像的难题。直到19世纪70时代从前,男孩比女孩花销更加长日子并得到越来越高等教学育,且更有超级大希望从高校完成学业。未来,无论是富裕世界依然越多的贫乏国家,平衡向另外一方倾斜。曾经忧虑女孩缺乏科学信心的计谋拟订者们,今后更加的多日子在强行男孩前面摇曳《HarryPorter》。瑞士联邦政府已委托了生龙活虎项有关“男孩危害”的钻探。澳国举办了生龙活虎项”男孩,男子,书和比特”的品类。仅仅几代时间内,前几性格别差距消失,而后生龙活虎种性别差距又出新。

The**reversal**is laid out in a report published on March 5th by the OECD, a Paris-based rich-country think-tank. Boys’ dominance just about endures in maths: at age 15 they are, on average, the equivalent of three months’ schooling ahead of girls. In science the results are fairly even. But in reading, where girls have been ahead for some time, a gulf has appeared. In all 64 countries and economies in the study, girls outperform boys. The average gap is equivalent to an**extra**year of schooling.

以法国首都为驻地的有余世界智库OECD于6月5号发表了风流倜傥份简报中展现了这种反转。男子在数学领域的主导地位大致会四处。在平均岁数十六虚岁时,男孩超过同年龄女孩七个月。在自然科学领域,男女学子表现杰出。可是,在翻阅领域,女孩一贯维系超越地位,且间隔变得越来越大。在此项研商所涉及的六贰十二个国家和经济体中,女孩比男孩表现出色。女孩平均比男孩超前四个学年。

The OECD**deems**literacy**to be the most**important skill that it assesses, since further learning depends on it. Sure enough, teenage boys are 50% more likely than girls to fail to achieve basic proficiency in any of maths, reading and science (see chart 1). Youngsters in this group, with nothing to**build on**or**shine at**, are prone to drop out of school altogether.

因进一层读书要求信赖读写技巧,OECD将它作为评估中最主要的技能。果真如此,在得以达成数学、阅读和自然科学的根基才干时,年轻男孩比女孩多出一半的失利恐怕。在那一个部落的年青人,因无所依据和无所精粹,而更有十分大只怕从这个学院停止上学。

To see why boys and girls fare so differently in the classroom, first**look at**必赢56net在线登录,what they do outside it. The average 15-year-old girl devotes five-and-a-half hours a week to homework, an hour more than the average boy, who spends more time playing video games and**trawling the internet**. Three-quarters of girls read for pleasure, compared with little more than half of boys. Reading rates are falling everywhere as screens draw eyes from pages, but boys are giving up faster. The OECD found that, among boys who do as much homework as the average girl, the gender gap in reading fell by nearly a quarter.

要明了怎么男人和女子在堂上内突显出那样差距,先从堂上之外活动出手。平日十七周岁女孩每一周开支5.5钟头去做家庭作业,比平均男孩多八个钟头,他们花费越来越多日子玩电子游艺和上网。3/4的女子将阅读作为消遣,而唯有二分一多点的男子这么做。随着显示器慢慢把目光从本本挪开,世界上独具地点的阅读率正慢慢裁减,而男子下跌速度越来越快。OECD发掘,在那么些和常常女人职业平日的男士中,在翻阅方面包车型大巴性别差距收缩了51%左右。

Once in the classroom, boys**long to**be out of it. They are twice as likely as girls to report that school is a “waste of time”, and more often turn up late. Just as teachers used to struggle to persuade girls that science is not only for men, the OECD now urges parents and policymakers to steer boys away from a version of**masculinity**that ignores academic achievement. “There are different pressures on boys,” says Mr Yip. “Unfortunately there’s a tendency where they try to**live up to**certain expectations in terms of [必赢56net手机版,bad] behavior.”

生龙活虎教书,男人就期盼快点甘休。在告知中,多于女子2倍的男士感觉上课是浪费时间,何况更有的时候迟到。就像过去教授努力说服女孩子自然科学并不只是男子领域,OECD近来建议家长和核心制定者指点男子远隔将忽略学术成就作为男子气概表现的这种主张。Yip校长说:“男孩面对着有滋有味的压力。但不幸的是,他们希图在坏行为上不负被人企盼。

Boys’**disdain**for school might have been less irrational when there were plenty of jobs for uneducated men. But those days**have long gone**. It may be that a bit of swagger helps in maths, where confidence plays a part in boys’ lead (though it sometimes extends to**delusion**: 12% of boys told the OECD that they were familiar with the mathematical concept of “subjunctive scaling”, a red herring that fooled only 7% of girls). But their lack of self-discipline drives teachers crazy.

当已经有好多做事可供未受教育男子接收时,男孩轻视学园还展现没那么非理性。但是那个日子已经秋风落叶。也是有的自豪有利于男子学习数学,自信驱使男子当先(但有时候则改为意气风发种幻觉:12%的男孩告诉OECD他们纯熟”虚构缩放“这一概念,而那风华正茂假概念则只蒙骗到7%的女孩)。但她俩远远不够自律让名师很胃疼。

Perhaps because they can be so insufferable, teenage boys are often marked down. The OECD found that boys did much better in its anonymized tests than in teacher assessments. The gap with girls in reading was a third smaller, and the gap in maths—where boys were already ahead—opened up further. In another finding that suggests a lack of even-handedness among teachers, boys are more likely than girls to be forced to repeat a year, even when they are of equal ability.

可能因为她俩这么令人难以忍受,青年男孩平日付与极低分数。OECD开掘,男孩在佚名测验中的表现好于教师评估。在读书方面包车型地铁性别差别减少了1/2;而在数学方面,已超过的男人将差异拉大。另生龙活虎钻探显得,因老师缺乏公平,就算技术万分。男子也比女孩子更有比相当的大可能率被供给复读一年,

What is behind this discrimination? One possibility is that teachers mark up students who are**polite, eager and stay out of fights**, all**attributes**that are more common among girls. In some countries, academic points can even be**dock**ed for bad behaviour. Another is that women, who make up eight out of ten primary-school teachers and nearly seven in ten lower-secondary teachers, favour their own sex, just as male bosses have been shown to favour male underlings. In a few places sexism is**enshrined**in law: Singapore still**canes**boys, while**sparing**girls the rod.是什么

产生这种反差对待?生机勃勃种大概的解释是教员授予那七个礼貌、热心和远远地离开打视而不见的学童越来越高分数,而这个特色在女孩中更为广泛。在局地国家,以至会因不良行为而扣掉学业分数。另生龙活虎种只怕是,女性,构成了百分之八十的小教的和相同五分四的初级中学年老年师,更偏心她们自个儿的性别,就如男性上级偏心男子下属日常。在局地地点在法律中也是有性别主义:新嘉坡仍旧允许鞭刑男子,而女人则免于该民法通则。

Some countries provide an environment in which boys can do better. In Latin America the gender gap in reading is relatively small, with boys in**Chile**,**Colombia**,**Mexico**and**Peru**trailing girls less than they do elsewhere. Awkwardly, however, this nearly always**comes with**a wider gender gap in maths,**in favour of**boys. The reverse is true, too: Iceland, Norway and Sweden, which have got girls up to parity with boys in maths, struggle with uncomfortably wide gender gaps in reading. Since 2003, the last occasion when the OECD did a big study, boys in a few countries have caught up in reading and girls in several others have significantly narrowed the gap in maths. No country has managed both.

在稍稍国家为男孩表现理想提供了条件。在拉美,阅读方面包车型客车性别差距相对不大。如智利、哥伦比亚共和国、墨西哥和秘鲁共和国的男士落后于女孩子小于其余地点。然则,令人郁结的是,那总伴随着男人在数学方面超过于女人的出入加大。反过来也建立。女孩与男孩在数学方面彰显相当的冰岛、挪威王国和Switzerland,挣扎于令人眼红的逐级加宽的开卷方面性别差别。自二〇〇四年OECD最终一遍就此开展的不足为道侦察展现,少数国家男子在翻阅方面碰到了女孩子,而在另生机勃勃部分国家女性成功缩小了数学方面包车型客车出入。但未有国家成功达成双方。

Girls’ educational dominance**persists**after school. Until a few decades ago men were in a clear majority at university almost everywhere (see chart 2), particularly in advanced courses and in science and engineering. But as higher education has boomed worldwide, women’s enrolment has increased almost twice as fast as men’s. In the OECD women now make up 56% of students enrolled, up from 46% in 1985. By 2025 that may rise to 58%.

高级中学档教育之后,女子的抢先地位继续保持。直至新近二十几年,男子大约攻陷高校的主流人群,非常是合情合理与工程领域的高阶课程。不过,随着高教在世界范围的如火如荼,女子入学拉长率差不离两倍于男人。在OECD申报称,女人注册率由1984年的55%回涨至四分之二,到2025年可能回涨至55%。

Even in the handful of OECD countries where women are in the minority on campus, their numbers**are creeping up**. Meanwhile several, including America, Britain and parts of Scandinavia, have 50% more women than men on campus. Numbers in many of America’s elite private colleges are more evenly balanced. It is widely believed that their opaque admissions criteria are relaxed for men.

就算在少数女人是个别人全的OECD国家,女人数量也再渐渐攀升。与此同期,一些满含U.S.、U.K.和亚洲国度,女子比男人人口多于一半。在无数美利坚合众国奇才公立高校中,性别比例越来越平衡。许四个人以为那个高校的不透明招生专门的工作特别偏幸男子。

The feminisation of higher education was so gradual that for a long time it passed unremarked. According to Stephan Vincent-Lancrin of the OECD, when in 2008 it published a report pointing out just how far it had gone, people “couldn’t believe it”.

高教的女人化进度如此缓慢,以致于在十分长日子内未被人察觉。据OECD的Stephan Vincent-Lancrin称,当2009年后生可畏份有关告知摘立即,大家“不相信任那结果”。

Women who go to university are more likely than their male peers to graduate, and typically get better grades. But men and women tend to study different subjects, with many women choosing courses in education, health, arts and the humanities, whereas men take up computing, engineering and the**exact sciences**. In mathematics women are**drawing level**; in the life sciences, social sciences, business and law they have moved ahead.

踏向高校的女人,相对于他们的男人同僚,更有希望毕业,且赢得更加好地培育。可是,男子和女人所选科目标趋向分化。越多地女子选择教育、健康、艺术和人艺术学科,而男性越来越多采用Computer、工程和精巧科学等学科。在数学方面,女子正长期以来,而在不利、社会科学、商业和准则方面,她们处于超过地位。

Social change has done more to encourage women to enter higher education than any deliberate policy.**The Pill**and a decline in the average number of children, together with later marriage and childbearing, have made it easier for married women to join the workforce. As more women went out to work, discrimination became less**sharp**. Girls saw the point of study once they were expected to have careers. Rising divorce rates underlined the importance of being able to provide for yourself. These days girls nearly everywhere seem more ambitious than boys, both academically and in their careers. It is hard to believe that in 1900-50 about half of jobs in America were barred to married women.

相对于其余蓄意的计划,社会变革更有益于于激励女人进入高教。口服避孕片和平均育儿数量的回退,以至晚婚和晚育等,为已婚女子搜索职业提供了福利。随着更加多女人进入职业蒙受,歧视变得没那么显明。意气风发旦女子被期待全部专门的职业发展时,女孩就开采到读书的至关重要。回升的离异率使得女性认识到本人供养的基本点。这几天,无论是学业上仍然职场上,世界各市的女孩比男孩表现出更加大理想。不敢相信 无法相信,在19社会风气上半叶,差不离大半U.S.专业禁止已婚女性从事。

So are women now on their way to becoming the dominant sex? Hanna Rosin’s book, “The End of Men and the Rise of Women”, published in 2012, argues that in America, at least, women are ahead not only**educationally**but increasingly also**professionally**and**socially**. Policymakers in many countries worry about the**prospect**of a growing**underclass**of**ill-educated men**. That should worry women, too: in the past they have typically married men in their own social group or above. If there are too few of those, many women will have**to marry down**or not at all.

那正是说,女人是不是渐渐变为宗旨性别?出版于二零一二年的Ranna Rosin的《The End of Men and the Rise of Women》中提议,起码在美利坚联邦合众国,女子不但教育上打头,还在职业上和社会上一马当先。比超多国度的国策制订者担心数量逐年攀升的下层阶级的启蒙程度十分低的男人的今后前程。女子也相应担心那一点。在过去,女人平时与同阶层或超过本人阶层的男子结婚。借使这种男性非常少,大大多女子只好寻找下阶层男性或选取不成婚。

According to the OECD, the return on investment in a degree is higher for women than for men in many countries, though not all. In America PayScale, a company that**crunches**incomes data, found that the return on investment in a college degree for women was lower than or at best the same as for men. Although women as a group are now better qualified, they earn about three-quarters as much as men. A big reason is the choice of subject: education, the humanities and social work pay less than engineering or computer science. But academic research shows that women attach less importance than men to the graduate pay premium, suggesting that a high financial return is not the main reason for their further education.

据OECD突显,虽不是成套,不过在广大国家,高教投入对女子的报恩超越男人。一家募集收入多少的店堂America PayScale开采,女人对于高校文凭的投资收益率相对于男人来说,异常的低或(在Infiniti处境下)相仿。即使女人完全展现更为,但他们薪酬水平仅为男子的3/4。首要缘由在于相对于工程或Computer科学等,女子选拔教育、人文和社科那类薪给超低科目。不过,学术商量显示相对于男人,女人更加少的关怀薪水,展现了谋求高回报并不是女人追求高教的关键原因。

At the highest levels of business and the professions, women remain notably scarce. In a reversal of the pattern at school, the anonymous and therefore gender-blind essays and exams at university protect female students from bias. But in the workplace, says Elisabeth Kelan of Britain’s Cranfield School of Management, “traditional patterns assert themselves in miraculous ways”. Men and women join the medical and legal professions in roughly equal numbers, but 10-15 years later many women have chosen unambitious career paths or dropped out to spend time with their children. Meanwhile men**are rising through the ranks**as qualifications gained long ago fade in importance and personality, ambition and experience come to matter more.

在高高的层级的商贸和标准领域,女人还是少之又少。女性在学堂所表现优势被转败为胜。在这个学校,散文及考试评价是无名氏的,性别因素被防止,而爱惜女性不受性别歧视的震慑。但是,来自于大不列颠及英格兰联合王国克兰Field教院的Elisabeth Kelan称,在做事地方守旧方式再度印证自个儿。同等数量的男人和女人衔预教院和准绳高校,但是,10-15年过后,许多女子选用了更进一层干燥的事情路径或花费更加的多日子陪孩子。与此同时,随着早先习得的经验的主要日益消散而本性、雄心和经验成为更为主要的熏陶因素,男人在生意层级上稳步攀升。

For a long time it was said that since women had historically been**underrepresented**in university and work, it would take time to fill the pipeline from which senior appointments were made. But after 40 years of making up the majority of graduates in some countries,**that argument is wearing thin**. According to Claudia Goldin, an economics professor at Harvard, the “last chapter” in the story of women’s rise—equal pay and access to the best jobs—will not come without big structural changes.

非常长风流倜傥段时间以来,流传着黄金年代种说法:因历史范围来看,无论是大学大概职场,女性所占比例相差,由此要求时间去建设构造通往高层职位的水道。不过40年来讲,一些国度结束学业生人数中女子造成主流,那项论证越来越站不住脚。据耶路撒冷希伯来高校文学教授ClaudiaGoldin称,女子崛起的终极环节--平等的报酬和精品专门的工作大概--若不开展大幅度构造调度是不会赶来。

In a recent paper in the American Economic Review Ms Goldin found that the difference between the hourly earnings of highly qualified men and their female peers grows hugely in the first 10-15 years of working life, largely because of a big**premium**in some highly paid jobs on putting in long days and being constantly on call. On the whole men find it easier than women to work in this way. Where such jobs are common, for example in business and the law, the gender pay gap remains wide and even**short spells**out of the workforce are severely penalised, meaning that**motherhood**can**exact**a heavy price. Where pay is roughly proportional to hours worked, as in pharmacy, it is low.

在AE安德拉的最新文献中,Goldin女士发觉高水平劳重力中,在工作生活的10到15年间,男子小时薪酬与女子差别宏大,主要原因在于高受益职业的小幅奖金决意于长日子专业和随即应对电话为前提。全部来说,男人相对于女人更专长如此行事。在此种职业办法遍布的天地,如商业和法则,性别薪金差距依旧比相当的大。而且,以致长时间离开工作条件也也许引致严重惩戒,意味着阿妈须要交给相当大代价。而当事业薪金主要依据理工科程师时长度时,就像配药房,性别薪给差别一点都不大。

There will always be jobs where flexibility is not an option, says Ms Goldin: those of CEOs, trial lawyers, surgeons, some bankers and senior politicians come to mind. In many others, pay does not need to depend on being**available all hours**—and well-educated men who want a life outside work would benefit from change, too. But the new gender gap is at the other end of the pay spectrum. And it is not women who are suffering, but unskilled men.

Goldin女士称:有些工作是难以达成灵活性的,就如这些首席实践官s、法院开庭审判律师、内科医务人士、银专家清劲风姿罗曼蒂克部分老品牌政客们。而除此以外别的职业,薪水并非在于随即待命。同一时间,受过非凡教育且想要脱离工作的男子也会从当中收益。可是,新的性别差距位于薪金范围的另风华正茂端。受罪的永不女子,而是无技能的男子。

Some countries have single-sex education models, while in others both single sex and mixed schools co-exist and it is up to the parents or the children to decide which model is preferable.

  So what are the causes of girls’ stronger performance? In the UK, girls outperform boys in exams that are taken at the age of 15 or 16, called GCSEs。 According to education expert Ian Toone, this is down to the way girls and boys are brought up。 “Boys are encouraged to be more active from an early age, whereas the restless movements of baby girls are pacified… Hence, girls develop the skill of sitting still for longer periods of time, which is useful for academic pursuits like studying for GCSEs。“

Some people think that it is better to educate boys and girls in separate schools. Others, however, believe that boys and girls benefit more from attending mixed schools. Discuss both these views and give your own opinion.

  income level收入水平

On the other hand, some experts would argue that mixed schools prepare their pupils for their future lives. Girls and boys learn to live together from an early age and are consequently not emotionally underdeveloped in their relations with the opposite sex. They are also able to learn each other, and to experience different types of skill and talent than might be evident in a single gender environment.

  peer pressure同龄人压力

Some educationalists think that it is more effective to educate boys and girls in single-sex schools because they believe this environment can reduce distractions and encourage pupils concentrate on their studies. This is probably true to some extent. It also allow more equality among pupils and gives more opportunity to all those at the school to choose subject more freely without gender prejudice. For example, a much higher proportion of girls study science to a high level when they attend girls' schools than their counterpart in mixed schools do. Similarly, boys in single-sex schools are more likely to take cookery classes and to study languages, which are often thought of as traditional subjects for girls.

见习编辑:王雨欣 网编:赵润琰

Personally, I think that there are advantages to both systems. I went to a mixed school, but feel that myself missed the opportunity to specialise in cookery because it was seen as the natural domain and career path for girl. So because of that, I would have preferred to go to a boys' school. But hopefully times have changed, and both genders of student can have equal chances to study what they want to in whichever type of school they attend.

  Vocabulary: education: 词汇:教育

  to cluster(人)聚集

  Girls outperform boys in school exams

699net必赢 1图形来源于:BBC

  school curricula高校课程

  Glossary 词汇表

  to reflect反映

  The level of gender equality in those regions made no difference to the results。 Other factors, such as the income level of the region also had little impact on the findings。 In only three regions – Colombia, Costa Rica and the Indian state Himachal Pradesh – was the trend reversed with boys doing better。

  gang mentality黑手党心态

  This is backed up by research in the UK that says girls are out-performing boys at the age of five。 So what is the answer? Should girls and boys be educated separately? Or do exams and school curricula need to be changed to better reflect boys’ skills? These are the questions facing educators in many countries。

  Around the world, girls do better than boys at school。 These are the findings of a recent study that looked at the test results of 1.5 million 15-year-olds in 74 regions across the globe。

  to influence影响

  factor因素

  文章来源:BBC

  solo单独的,独自地

  gender equality男女相似

  to pacify使安静、平定

  laddish幼稚的,孩子气的

  cool酷

  He goes on to say that boys often cluster together in larger groups than girls。 Because of this they are more likely to be influenced by peer pressure and develop a gang mentality。 He says that GCSEs require a lot of solo work and are not viewed as ‘cool’ in a laddish culture。

  academic pursuit学术追求

版权声明:本文由699net必赢发布于出国教育,转载请注明出处:女生在校学习成绩更好